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مُساهمة من طرف زائر في الأربعاء أكتوبر 15, 2008 7:23 pm

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مُساهمة من طرف HeMa PoP في الأربعاء أكتوبر 15, 2008 9:13 pm

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والنقل



The field of transport has several aspects: loosely they can be divided
into a triad of infrastructure, vehicles, and operations. Infrastructure
includes the transport networks (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals,
pipelines, etc.) that are used, as well as the nodes or terminals (such as
airports, railway stations, bus stations and seaports). The vehicles generally
ride on the networks, such as automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, aircraft.
The operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated on the network and
the procedures set for this purpose including the legal environment (Laws,
Codes, Regulations, etc.) Policies, such as how to finance the system (for
example, the use of tolls or gasoline taxes) may be considered part of the
operations.
Broadly speaking, the design of networks are the domain of civil engineering
and urban planning, the design of vehicles of mechanical engineering and
specialized subfields such as nautical engineering and aerospace engineering,
and the operations are usually specialized, though might appropriately belong
to operations research or systems engineering.
] Modes and categories
: Mode of transport
Modes are combinations of networks, vehicles, and operations, and include
walking, the road transport system, rail transport, ship transport and modern
aviation.
• Air transport
• Cable transport
• Conveyor transport
• Human-powered transport
• Hybrid transport
• New Mobility Agenda
• Rail transport
• Road transport, including human-powered transport such as walking and cycling

• Ship transport
• Space transport
• Sustainable transportation
• Transport on other planets
• Proposed future transport
(Non-human) animal-powered transport
Animal-powered transport is a broad category of the human use of non-human
working animals (also known as "beasts of burden") for the movement
of people and goods. Humans may ride some of the larger of these animals
directly, use them as pack animals for carrying goods, or harness them, singly
or in teams, to pull (or haul) sleds or wheeled vehicles.
] Air transport
: Air transport
A fixed-wing aircraft, commonly called airplane or aeroplane, is a
heavier-than-air craft where movement of the wings in relation to the aircraft
is not used to generate lift. The term is used to distinguish from rotary-wing
aircraft, where the movement of the lift surfaces relative to the aircraft
generates lift. A more rare type of aircraft that is neither fixed-wing nor
rotary-wing is an ornithopter. A heliplane is $$$$ fixed-wing and rotary-wing.


A Cessna 177 propeller-driven general aviation aircraft
Fixed-wing aircraft include a large range of craft from small trainers and
recreational aircraft to large airliners and military cargo aircraft. Some
aircraft use fixed wings to provide lift only part of the time and may or may
not be referred to as fixed-wing.
The current term also embraces aircraft with folding the wings that are
intended to fold when on the ground. This is usually to ease storage or
facilitate transport on, for example, a vehicle trailer or the powered lift
connecting the hangar deck of an aircraft carrier to its flight deck. It also
embraces aircraft, such as the General Dynamics F-111, Grumman F-14 Tomcat and
the Panavia Tornado, which can vary the sweep angle of their wings during
flight. These aircraft are termed "variable geometry" aircraft. When
the wings of these aircraft are fully swept, usually for high speed cruise, the
trailing edges of their wings about the leading edges of their tailplanes,
giving an impression of a single delta wing if viewed in plan. There are also
rare examples of aircraft which can vary the angle of incidence of their wings
in flight, such the F-8 Crusader, which are also considered to be
"fixed-wing".
Two necessities for all fixed-wing aircraft (as well as rotary-wing aircraft)
are air flow over the wings for lifting of the aircraft, and an open area for
landing. The majority of aircraft, however, also need an airport with the
infrastructure to receive maintenance, restocking, refueling and for the
loading and unloading of crew, cargo and/or passengers. While the vast majority
of aircraft land and take off on land, some are capable of take off and landing
on ice, snow and calm water.
The aircraft is the second fastest method of transport, after the rocket.
Commercial jet aircraft can reach up to 875 km/h. Single-engine
aircraft are capable of reaching 175 km/h or more at cruise speed. Supersonic
aircraft (military, research and a few private aircraft) can reach speeds
faster than sound. The record is currently held by the SR-71 with a speed of 3,529.56 km/h (2193.17 mph, 1905.81
knots).
Rail
: Rail transport
Rail transport is the transport of passengers and goods along railways or
railroads. A typical railway (or railroad) track consists of two parallel steel
(or in older networks, iron) rails, generally anchored perpendicular to beams
(termed sleepers or ties) of timber, concrete, or steel to maintain a
consistent distance apart, or gauge. The rails and perpendicular beams are usually
then placed on a foundation made of concrete or compressed earth and gravel in
a bed of ballast to prevent the track from buckling (bending out of its
original configuration) as the ground settles over time beneath and under the
weight of the vehicles passing above. The vehicles traveling on the rails are
arranged in a train; a series of individual powered or unpowered vehicles
linked together, displaying markers. These vehicles (referred to, in general,
as cars, carriages or wagons) move with much less friction than on rubber tires
on a paved road, and the locomotive that pulls the train tends to use energy
far more efficiently as a result.


Acela Express, an American high-speed passenger train
In rail transport, a train consists of rail vehicles that move along guides to
transport freight or passengers from one place to another. The guideway
(permanent way) usually consists of conventional rail tracks, but might also be
monorail or maglev. Propulsion for the train is provided by a separate
locomotive, or from individual motors in self-propelled multiple units. Most
trains are powered by diesel engines or by electricity supplied by trackside
systems. Historically the steam engine was the dominant form of locomotive
power through the mid-20th century, but other sources of power (such as horses,
rope (or wire), gravity, pneumatics, or gas turbines) are possible.
Road transport
: Road transport
Automobile
An automobile is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor.
Different types of automobiles include cars, buses, trucks, and vans. Some
include motorcycles in the category, but cars are the most typical automobiles.
As of 2002 there were 590 million passenger cars worldwide (roughly one car for
every ten people), of which 170 million in the U.S. (roughly one car for every two
people) [1].
The automobile was thought of as an environmental improvement over horses when
it was first introduced in the 1890s. Before its introduction, in New York City alone, more
than 1,800 tons of manure had to be removed from the streets daily, although
the manure was used as natural fertilizer for crops and to build top soil. In
2006, the automobile is recognized as one of the primary sources of world-wide
air pollution and a cause of substantial noise pollution and adverse health
effects.
] See also
• Bicycle
• Bus
• Carpooling
• Cycling
• Human-powered transport
• Limousine
• Road train
• Share taxi
• Semi-trailer truck
• Taxicab
• Truck






وده واحد تاني كمان يمكن يفيدك برضه


There are many different means of transport to get around. Nevertheless, most
people take the plane to reach their destinations. And when they set out for
longer journeys, they also take the airplane to move between destinations, even
if they are not far apart. According to us, taking the airplane is not the most
adventurous way of travelling. It will only bring you to cities or the most
popular places, skipping the interesting countryside. And it will not bring you
in contact with the locals, who are not using airplanes to go around. And what
about those of us who are afraid of flying? And what about the air travel’s
contribution to global warming? So, lets find out about some alternative means
of transport for adventure travel.



Public Transport


For us, adventure travel includes finding your way around by public transport.
This is what is often meant by independent travel (or individual travel) as
well. A drawback may be that it takes some more time to get around, but on the
other hand it is a great way to meet local people, and that’s also what
travelling is about, isn’t it?


In general, two types of public transport systems can be identified: the
systems that take you from destination to destination, and local systems that
help you get around. For the first, we prefer to travel by train. Trains are
comfortable, without sudden movements, and mostly you can move around in them.
More information can be found on our page about Train Travel.



In some continents or countries, however, there are little or no rail tracks.
To move between destinations there, you will have to take the bus. But buses
have their advantages, too. For one, they are often cheaper than trains. So
check our page about Bus Travel to know when and where you can take the bus.



To get around within a city or region, you need to depend on local transport.
However, in every continent, every country, and even in every city, the local
public transport system can be different. When travelling to the big cities in
for instance Europe, be prepared to learn the
specific details of the local subway or bus system again for each city. These
are the general guidelines for this: find a public transport map; find out the
payment type and discount cards; and get going. In some continents and
countries, however, you need to learn the general way of local transport. Read
about a few of those on our Rickshaw page.




Overland


Apart from using public transport, there are other means of travelling
overland. Bringing your own vehicle is also an option. In urban areas and
developed country, this may have some of the disadvantages as air travel: you
will only see your destination plus the highway, and you will not meet the
locals. In more remote areas, however, you will indeed see much more, and may
end up sleeping at the locals in distant villages in the countryside. In these
remote regions, you will most likely need a 4x4 vehicle or motorbike, allowing
you to go offroad. You can read more about this in this article about Offroad
Adventure Travel, written for us by offroad specialist Ron Douglas.



If you are adventurous, but not technical enough to go by your own 4x4,
consider taking an overland truck. These are organized trips, but other than
that offer all the excitement of adventure travel. Read more about this way of travelling
on out page about Overland Trucks



Last, but certainly not least, we would like to mention travelling by bicycle.
Agreed, it is slow, but if you have more time on your hands, it is the best way
to experience the country and region you are travelling in. You can read more
about it in this article about Bike Travel, written for us by experienced
bicycle traveller Peter van der Lans.




Boats


Where it is not possible to travel overland, consider travelling by boat. Boats
are used in densely forested surroundings (Borneo,
the Amazon area). But they are also an important means of transport in large
Archipelagos, like Indonesia.
For travelling between the continents, and over the oceans, there are also
possibilities like passenger ships, cruises, or cargo ships that take
passengers. Check out how to travel from Europe to the United States
by sea on this website.





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مُساهمة من طرف (عنوني لحبيبي ) في الأربعاء أكتوبر 15, 2008 11:27 pm

الله يعطيك العافيه يا هيمو ما قصرت

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