people and goods from one place to another. The term is derived from
the Latin trans ("across") and portare ("to carry"). Industries which
have the business of providing equipment, actual transport, transport
of people or goods and services used in transport of goods or people
make up a large broad and important sector of most national economies,
and are collectively referred to as transport industries.
Aspects of transport
field of transport has several aspects: loosely they can be divided
into a triad of infrastructure, vehicles, and operations.
Infrastructure includes the transport networks (roads, railways,
airways, waterways, canals, pipelines, etc.) that are used, as well as
the nodes or terminals (such as airports, railway stations, bus
stations and seaports). The vehicles generally ride on the networks,
such as automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, aircraft. The operations
deal with the way the vehicles are operated on the network and the
procedures set for this purpose including the legal environment (Laws,
Codes, Regulations, etc.) Policies, such as how to finance the system
(for example, the use of tolls or gasoline taxes) may be considered
part of the operations.
Broadly speaking, the design of networks
are the world's future. Domains of civil engineering and urban
planning, the design of vehicles of mechanical engineering and
specialized subfields such as nautical engineering and aerospace
engineering, and the operations are usually specialized, though might
appropriately belong to operations research or systems engineering.
Modes and categories
Main article: Mode of transport
are combinations of networks, vehicles, and operations, and include
walking, the road transport system, rail transport, ship transport and
New Mobility Agenda
Road transport, including human-powered transport such as walking and cycling
Transport on other planets
Proposed future transport
transport is a broad category of the human use of non-human working
animals (also known as "beasts of burden") for the movement of people
and goods. Humans may ride some of the larger of these animals
directly, use them as pack animals for carrying goods, or harness them,
singly or in teams, to pull (or haul) sleds or wheeled vehicles.
Main article: Air transport
fixed-wing aircraft, commonly called airplane or aeroplane, is a
heavier-than-air craft where movement of the wings in relation to the
aircraft is not used to generate lift. The term is used to distinguish
from rotary-wing aircraft, where the movement of the lift surfaces
relative to the aircraft generates lift. A more rare type of aircraft
that is neither fixed-wing nor rotary-wing is an ornithopter. A
heliplane is both fixed-wing and rotary-wing.
A Cessna 177
propeller-driven general aviation aircraftFixed-wing aircraft include a
large range of craft from small trainers and recreational aircraft to
large airliners and military cargo aircraft. Some aircraft use fixed
wings to provide lift only part of the time and may or may not be
referred to as fixed-wing.
The current term also embraces
aircraft with folding the wings that are intended to fold when on the
ground. This is usually to ease storage or facilitate transport on, for
example, a vehicle trailer or the powered lift connecting the hangar
deck of an aircraft carrier to its flight deck. It also embraces
aircraft, such as the General Dynamics F-111, Grumman F-14 Tomcat and
the Panavia Tornado, which can vary the sweep angle of their wings
during flight. These aircraft are termed "variable geometry" aircraft.
When the wings of these aircraft are fully swept, usually for high
speed cruise, the trailing edges of their wings about the leading edges
of their tailplanes, giving an impression of a single delta wing if
viewed in plan. There are also rare examples of aircraft which can vary
the angle of incidence of their wings in flight, such the F-8 Crusader,
which are also considered to be "fixed-wing".
for all fixed-wing aircraft (as well as rotary-wing aircraft) are air
flow over the wings for lifting of the aircraft, and an open area for
landing. The majority of aircraft, however, also need an airport with
the infrastructure to receive maintenance, restocking, refueling and
for the loading and unloading of crew, cargo and/or passengers. While
the vast majority of aircraft land and take off on land, some are
capable of take off and landing on ice, snow and calm water.
aircraft is the second fastest method of transport, after the rocket.
Commercial jet aircraft can reach up to 875 km/h. Single-engine
aircraft are capable of reaching 175 km/h or more at cruise speed.
Supersonic aircraft (military, research and a few private aircraft) can
reach speeds faster than sound. The record is currently held by the
SR-71 with a speed of 3,529.56 km/h (2193.17 mph, 1905.81 knots).
Main article: Rail transport
transport is the transport of passengers and goods along railways or
railroads. A typical railway (or railroad) track consists of two
parallel steel (or in older networks, iron) rails, generally anchored
perpendicular to beams (termed sleepers or ties) of timber, concrete,
or steel to maintain a consistent distance apart, or gauge. The rails
and perpendicular beams are usually then placed on a foundation made of
concrete or compressed earth and gravel in a bed of ballast to prevent
the track from buckling (bending out of its original configuration) as
the ground settles over time beneath and under the weight of the
vehicles passing above. The vehicles traveling on the rails are
arranged in a train; a series of individual powered or unpowered
vehicles linked together, displaying markers. These vehicles (referred
to, in general, as cars, carriages or wagons) move with much less
friction than on rubber tires on a paved road, and the locomotive that
pulls the train tends to use energy far more efficiently as a result.
Express, an American high-speed passenger trainIn rail transport, a
train consists of rail vehicles that move along guides to transport
freight or passengers from one place to another. The guideway
(permanent way) usually consists of conventional rail tracks, but might
also be monorail or maglev. Propulsion for the train is provided by a
separate locomotive, or from individual motors in self-propelled
multiple units. Most trains are powered by diesel engines or by
electricity supplied by trackside systems. Historically the steam
engine was the dominant form of locomotive power through the mid-20th
century, but other sources of power (such as horses, rope (or wire),
gravity, pneumatics, or gas turbines) are possible
Main article: Road transport
automobile is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor.
Different types of automobiles include cars, buses, trucks, and vans.
Some include motorcycles in the category, but cars are the most typical
automobiles. As of 2002 there were 590 million passenger cars worldwide
(roughly one car for every ten people), of which 170 million in the
U.S. (roughly one car for every two people) .
was thought of as an environmental improvement over horses when it was
first introduced in the 1890s. Before its introduction, in New York
City alone, more than 1,800 tons of manure had to be removed from the
streets daily, although the manure was used as natural fertilizer for
crops and to build top soil. In 2006, the automobile is recognized as
one of the primary sources of world-wide air pollution and a cause of
substantial noise pollution and adverse health effects.